Posted in general education, homeschool, mind, more seeds, social studies, special education

#RealAmericans: A Photo Journal

“Real Americans” in the News

There has been a lot of talk in the news, on social media, and on the radio, about some of the comments made by prominent citizens in our country, on the subject of what it looks like to be a “real American.”

As most of us did, regardless of our own political and religious views, I reacted strongly to some of the messaging that I heard and saw.

A very wise friend of mine once told me, “If something upsets you, don’t do anything. Sleep on it. If you are still upset the next day, THEN do something about it.”

The next day, I was still aching, deep in my heart. But, being a teacher, I have learned that there is ALWAYS something to be learned, no matter how tragic, painful or even benign, the situation. So I set about trying to figure out what it was that I (ME!) needed to learn about what it was to be a REAL American.

The #RealAmericans Project

I created my own challenge, entitled #RealAmericans, and created a Facebook album to share as I learned (a Pinterest page will follow… stay tuned). I didn’t want it to be politically or religiously biased in any way, so I had to think hard about what messages I wanted it so give. Here are the messages I hope people hear/see from this project.

  1. Diversity is a strength. I want the project to include Americans of all kinds, of all races, of all walks of life.
  2. Love wins. No matter what the image, I wanted it to project a message of love. People might not agree with a political viewpoint, but they can’t disagree with love.
  3. Real Americans spend their lives doing wonderful, ordinary, ground-breaking things. Diapering a toddler is as important as owning a company; tending an orphaned duck is as important as leading a protest. Running a classroom is as important as running a bank or running a marathon.
  4. Everyone is my neighbor. Yes, even the ones I disagree with. Maybe even don’t like that well.
  5. There is always a story behind the image. Images we see in the news are real people. With real, American stories.
  6. Americans share common values. I want to include at least three photos from each of the 50 states and the protectorates of our country. At least one photo should show racial diversity. One photo shares a love theme.
#RealAmericans
#DiversityisStrength
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The #RealAmericans Project ~ where #DiversityisStrength.

Your Own #RealAmericans Project

If controversy arises in your classroom over what kids see in the news, instead of persuading them, challenge them to do their own #RealAmericans Project. Make sure that they include the story of the individual in the caption.

  • the person’s name
  • a brief description of the person’s role(s)
  • a statement about the person’s life.
  • the location of the photo
  • proper image credit

If you choose to do your own #RealAmericans Project, please link up the post or album in the comments section, below. Feel free to use the hashtags #RealAmericans and #DiversityisStrength. I would ask that you keep to the messages that I listed above, and keep the message positive and loving.

Namaste.

Posted in arts, more seeds, special education, spirit

Using Music in the Classroom

Music – it’s Not Just for Music Teachers!

I’ve been a teacher for a long time. Music has always been a tool that I’ve used in my classroom, from pre-K through adult education.

I don’t want you to think I’m that magical teacher who started every day playing the piano or guitar and singing with my students. I HAVE done that before, but not everyone can play an instrument or sing. That doesn’t mean that you can’t use music to reach the students in your room.

Today, I wanted to share with you some tips for incorporating music into your daily or weekly routines, and some of the brain research into why you should especially consider it, if you’re working with students who have disabilities.

Why Music?

We all can relate to the effects that some music has on us, as people. But is there actual research on the effects of music on us? If so, what does it say? How can we use that in our teaching?

As it turns out, there is a LOT of research on the positive effects of music on humans (and other species), of all ages. Dr. Jeremy Dean, psychologist from University College in London, has compiled research studies on a number of ways that music improves our lives as humans:

  1. It improves our cognitive ability (especially if we learn to play an instrument);
  2. It gives us a feeling of tapping into something bigger than ourselves;
  3. It makes us feel happier;
  4. It makes us feel closer to others (especially when we perform together)
  5. It decreases our stress levels and increases heart health;
  6. It helps us manage our moods;
  7. It changes the way we see other people;
  8. It makes the world seem more colorful;
  9. It improves our vision (really!);
  10. It’s something we are drawn too from birth.

Simple Ways to Incorporate Music into Your Daily Routines

As I said, music sneaks into my day regularly. Here are some ways to use it easily, organized by goal areas (I included BONUS homework activities – my students are notorious for not doing homework, but these ideas have worked for me year after year).

“Sheet Music” by nick.amoscato is licensed under CC BY 2.0 

Academic/Cognitive ~ Language Arts

  • Song Lyrics as Poetry: My students often balk if I mention that we are going to do a poetry unit. When that happens, I use song lyrics to lead off the unit. Starting with familiar songs hooks the students, enabling me to then shift into classic pieces during the unit. {BONUS: My kids don’t like to do homework. But they WILL write down the lyrics to their favorite songs, especially if we are going to use them in class that week}
  • Mood and Theme in Literature: Last year, my class struggled with comprehension beyond the “right in your face” type. So I wrote common themes in literature on the Promethean board, then played familiar songs for the students, and asked them to identify the theme of the piece (this also works for mood). We discussed how the words and music each contributed to the meaning, much the way you would discuss the words and pictures in a picture book. {BONUS: I gave the kids homework assignments to come to school the next day with a song that fit a particular theme or mood}.

Academic/Cognitive ~ Math

  • Fractions: With students who have an ear for music, and maybe know how to play an instrument or read music, I’ve used note values to help them understand the fractions whole, half, quarter, eighth, sixteenth, and even thirty-second. Here is an online guitar lesson that has audio clips of the various note values.

Study Skills

  • Transitioning into the School Day: One year, I had a very rowdy group, which, ironically, also included a child with agorophobia for whom just entering the classroom was difficult, especially when it was noisy. The way the class came into the building set the (unfortunate) tone for the rest of the morning. Out of desperation, I started playing smooth jazz on my Promethean board, using my Pandora account. The kids entered the building, and said, “Ooh. What’s that?” They entered the room head-bobbing and snapping their fingers – very silly – but 1) got into the room and 2) sat down to work.
  • Focus Aids: Over the years, my kids have asked for music to help them focus when they write, or when they are doing independent work. NOTE: I stick to music without lyrics, as the lyrics are often a distraction. My kids usually ask for piano music.
“SH530048” by fo.ol is licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0 

Behavioral / Social-Emotional

  • Self-calming #1 ~ Music Contracts: In a previous school, we issued music contracts to students who requested music as a calming or focus aid. Students had to show that they were able to use the aid responsibly (e.g., work got done, the equipment was used and cared for properly, students turned off the devices when asked). We purchased inexpensive MP3 players (without wi-fi or internet capabilities) for each student, and ear buds. We then asked the students to list music they wanted to have on the MP3 player, and one of the staff members found “clean” and school appropriate versions of the songs, and loaded each students MP3 player. {BONUS: the music list can be sent home for homework}
  • Self-calming #2 ~ Mood Reset: In a behavioral health setting, disruptive behavior happens. And it affects the rest of the group, because “everybody’s here for a reason.” One year, when I had quite a few “internalizers,” if there was too much tension, the students would ask to turn off the lights, put their heads down, and listen to music for 5-10 minutes, to get themselves back in order. It was good for all of us.
  • Motor Break: Once in awhile, you get that kid that has to move periodically, to get the sillies or fidgets out. One of my students was given the strategy to go to the back of the room and “dance it out.” He was an excellent dancer, and would do a quick 30-second “Fortnite” dance to get himself refocused (dancing to music inside his head). We got so used to it, and he used it so appropriately, that no one paid him any mind.

Communication

  • Listening: When you work with students with behavioral health or cognitive issues, many will have IEP goals about following directions. Kids with ODD (Oppositional Defiant Disorder) will hear your voice and automatically want to do the opposite, no matter what you’re saying. So, I’ve “tricked” kids into learning how to listen and follow directions by using music as a hook, by having them listen for a particular thing (a word the singer uses to describe his love, the instrument that sets the tone of the piece, the way the writer uses dynamics to surprise you…), then write it down.
“Piano keys” by waltfur is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 

Fine and Gross Motor

  • Coordination and Strength: Kids on certain medications (especially psychotropic ones) have difficulties with their weight, overall energy levels, and, sometimes, coordination. Some kids’ disabilities, themselves, affect their muscle tone. All of these things make physical activity unpleasant for a lot of kids – especially teens, who might not be physical activity fans, anyway. In the past, we’ve had success engaging every one of our kids when we had a drum circle. It’s communal, it’s loud, and they get to bang on stuff – with permission! It also helps them with listening and timing.

Transition

  • Playing Music as a Pastime: When we were cleaning out an old room to turn it into a classroom, we found several keyboards. No one wanted them in their rooms, so my assistant and I took two of them. We set them up near one of the Promethean boards, and found videos on keyboard playing for beginners. Two of my students as to play the keyboards during activity period, every day. Identifying a hobby is an important part of transitioning into adulthood {NOTE: we hide the power cords when we don’t want the keyboards to be a distraction!} .
  • Identifying Strengths: As part of our community meetings, our principal used to set up karaoke, and have open mic times. One year, a new student stepped to the mic and sang the popular song, “Location.” He sounded just like the actual singer! He didn’t realize that he sang as well as he did. Another student would play her ukelele and sing. It was good for the kids to realize they had strengths, and good for their peers to see them in a different light.

Other Ways to Use Music

I know that I focused more on older students in this article. In my experience, it is way easier to get younger students involved in music activities. It’s when students hit the teen years that they become self-conscious and withdrawn. I love to sing and play music, but, as I said, I am NOT the teacher who is drawn to performing in the classroom. The above activities were comfortable for ME, too.

Do you use music in your special education classroom? Let me know in the comments section.

Meet My Musical Family

A little about me and my family:

There are a lot of musicians in my family. Basically, we are our own band:

My husband is a professional drummer… my eldest son plays the clarinet and saxophone… my middle and youngest sons play the trombone… my youngest son also plays the drums… I sing, and play guitar and violin. My mom passed on her musical genes to me. My husband has professional musicians (a bassist, a saxophone player, singers) in his family, and inherited his musical abilities from his mom, too.

So this article touched my soul… I wanted to share some photos of my family, making music. Enjoy!

Posted in body, general education, health, homeschool, special education

Drinking Water is Good for You!

It’s So Hot… But the Water’s Not…

Here, in Connecticut, it seems like we went from winter to 90’s and haven’t looked back since June.

Since our house is a rambling old Tudor, the upstairs gets… well… rather “toasty” in the summer. Those big windows that let all the delicious light in during the winter create a mini-greenhouse in the summer. We broke down and put in the air conditioners this past weekend.

At school, I find myself reminding my teens about proper hydration, especially since there are a few of them that need motor breaks and outdoor time to refocus partway through the day.

Because we have a looser schedule in the summer (reading, writing and math, a social-emotional learning lesson and an extra period for reinforcing behavioral skills), I was looking for some lessons on self-care, and thought about teaching my students about how to keep hydrated when the weather is so hot.

http://allkidscanlearn.school.blog
health and hydration
drinking water
Use the summer months to teach students about the importance of proper hydration.

The Importance of Drinking Enough Water

Here are some important facts about water and the human body:

  1. Your body is 50-65% water. Men are more “watery” than women, on average.
  2. The water in your bloodstream is like an HVAC system. It distributes heat evenly, keeping your temperature constant.
  3. Water is part of every chemical reaction in your body. All the enzymes that make you “go” need water in order to work.
  4. You need water for proper sanitation. Without water, well… you just can’t pee and poop properly. And sweat contains salt wastes, as well as helping to cool you when you’re hot.
  5. Water is the most important “nutrient” in you diet. A person can live without food for a long time, but only for 3 days without water.

The rule of thumb is you should drink half of your body weight (lbs) in ounces of water. For example, a 160-lb teen should drink 160/2, or 80 oz of water. That’s a little more than a half gallon of water a day! Fear not, however: eating fresh fruits and vegetables can give you a lot of that water.

If it’s hot outside, if you have a fever, if you don’t feel well, if you’re exercising … then you will need more water. In general, if you aren’t feeling your best, if you’re tired or cranky, start out with a glass of water — it might do the trick!

https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0590221973/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=9325&creativeASIN=0590221973&linkCode=as2&tag=allkidscanlea-20&linkId=80fdd0c34cb064b7b2a2fa033857aa94
http://allkidscanlearn.school.blog
health and hydration
drinking water
A Drop of Water, by Walter Wick – click for details.

Lessons on Health and Hydration, by Grade Level

I did a quick search of lesson plans on water and nutrition. Here are a few lesson plans that I though looked especially good. Let me know in the comments if you try them or if you find other ones to add to the list:

Early Childhood / Preschool and Kindergarten

Water is Your Best Friend” ~ Dublin San Ramon Services District (Dublin, California)

Let’s Drink Water!” ~ Cavity-Free Kids

Primary Grades / First and Second Grade

Teaching Kids the Importance of Drinking Water” ~ SF Gate

Hydration” ~ Fizzy’s Lunch Lab

Elementary Grades / Third and Fourth Grade

Water and You” ~ Health Teacher

Aqua Bodies: Healthy Hydration” ~ Project WET Foundation

Upper Elementary Grades / Fifth and Sixth Grade

You Are What You Drink!” ~ Teach Engineering

Drinking Water Worksheet Questions” {for research] ~ The Center for Global Studies (Penn State University)

Junior High / Seventh and Eighth Grade

Quench Your Thirst: The Importance of Water” ~ Health Powered Kids

Are You Dehydrated?” ~ The Water Project

High School / Ninth through Twelfth Grade

Drinking Water and Your Health” ~ Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene

Choosing Healthy Beverages” ~ Eat. Right. Now. (Drexel University)

http://allkidscanlearn.school.blog
drinking water
health and hydration
Living things are 50-65% water. {Image credit: (c) 2019, Kim M. Bennett}

Choosing a Hydration Lesson Plan

Pick the lesson plan you use based on the comprehension level of your students, then choose the reading materials based on their reading level. For example, my summer school students are teens, so I would deliver the content using one of the junior high or high school plans. However, since they don’t read at that level right now, I would give them student materials at the elementary or upper elementary levels. (NOTE: you can use ReadWorks to find reading materials if the ones in the lessons are not the right level for your kids).

Do you have favorite lessons or activities that you use to teach your students the importance of drinking enough water? Link them up, below!

Posted in general education, homeschool, literacy, mind, more seeds, special education

Writing for Life: 10 Things Kids Should Be Able to Write

The State of Writing in School

A few years back, fellow homeschool blogger, Mary Prather, wrote about the benefits of giving (or allowing) our children to have an anchor, an activity that they go to to center themselves, to fill time, to find peace, to find challenge. This is a practice I have tried to continue into my own homeschool, and my special ed classroom, as well.

My youngest child is an avid writer. And when I mean writer, I don’t mean he cranks out stories (although he does write stories). I mean, he writes everything: steps to designing a chicken coop in Minecraft; graphic novels about Batman and Star Wars characters; “chapter books” about famous battles; bios of superheroes he invents. In recent years, he has taken on computer coding as a more symbolic way of making meaning. Unlike what happens in most public school classrooms, where kids only write fictional narratives until grade 3 (because it’s on the state test), then they switch to biography (because that’s on the grade 4 test), then on to persuasive essays (you get the picture), my son learned, from an early age, that writing was putting pen (or crayon, or marker, or paintbrush, or keystroke, or all of the above) to paper or screen to communicate. And he simply loves to write in every way that you can.

I don’t have any trouble getting him to write. In fact, early on in our homeschooling of him, we learned to just leave him alone, and be resource providers. We got more mileage out of introducing him to a new genre of writing, and analyzing its features, than by forced writing lessons. But I know that many homeschoolers (and public school teachers!) struggle to get kids to write, and I really believe it’s because we 1) limit what “writing” is… 2) don’t give kids interesting things to write about (or read about, or talk about, for that matter) in most schools… and 3) don’t have a clear purpose for communicating beyond, “It’s our quarterly prompt.”

Real-World Writing Tasks

Here is my list of ten things that I believe all kids (from preschool to high school) should know how to write, in order to be complete writers, and my rationale for each:

  • An organized list
  • An email
  • A business letter
  • A hand-written thank you note
  • A poem or lyrics to a song
  • A personal or fictional narrative
  • A written argument
  • An informational article
  • A photo caption
  • The directions for a task or activity
10 Different Writing Ideas
Incorporating a variety of writing pieces into your writing curriculum engages young writers and teaches them important skills for their adult lives. (c) Kim M. Bennett, 2012.

1. An Organized List…

A list is probably the last thing people think of when they think of writing, and it’s the kind of writing I do most, and do absolutely every day. Creating and using lists teaches kids so many things:

  • Goal-setting & progress monitoring
  • Accountability
  • Prioritization
  • Time allocation

From an early age, my son learned to use a checklist to keep track of his homeschool work and chores. He feels accomplished crossing things off, tends to get less sidetracked by less important distractions, and gets more done, as a result.

In my classroom, I use “100 Lists” as a regular writing task (“List 100 things you love” ~ “List 100 things to do when you’re feeling blue”). This very accessible writing can be used in any subject area, with any student, even ones who have a hard time starting.

2. An Email…

Nowadays, most companies prefer that you contact them by email, and even public school teachers use email to communicate with their students. Judging from the amount of time companies spend on teaching their employees email “etiquette,” it seems that, as a writing form, it deserves its own instruction:

  • Knowing your audience
  • Writing subject lines that enable you to search your mail better
  • Keeping things focused on one topic
  • Responsible use of copy, blind copy, reply all, forward, recall and other functions
  • Attaching or embedding additional information

3. A Business Letter…

Edward Bulwer-Lytton (1839) wrote that “the pen is mightier than the sword.” In these days of email, cell phones and Twitter, customers often neglect the most powerful tool they have to communicate with businesses: the letter.

When kids learn how to write a business letter, they learn some important nuances of language:

  • How to use a formal tone in writing
  • Putting the most important points first (in case the whole letter isn’t read)
  • How to use the “compliment sandwich:” open nicely, get to your issue, then wrap up warmly

Look for opportunities for your kids to practice writing to a company or organization, in homeschool or classroom.

4A Thank You Note…

When I was little, of course we didn’t have computers or cell phones. My mom made us write thank you notes when we received gifts. They didn’t have to be works of art, but they WERE written. The end. Here were her reasons (and they are mine, too!):

  • Manners, manners, manners!
  • Everyone loves to get real mail (don’t you?), written by someone, and addressed to someone by hand. On paper. With a stamp.
  • Gratitude is something we all need to practice.

In short, thank you notes are mostly about the feelings of the other person, and have very little to do with us.

In my third grade classroom, I had a letter writing center, where students practiced letter format and wrote letters to students and staff in the building. Once a day, the “mail carrier” (one of the class jobs for the students) would deliver the mail, putting letters into classroom “mailboxes” (folders tacked to the bulletin board), and hand delivering mail that went outside the classroom. We were the talk of the building!

5. Poetry or Song Lyrics

One of my favorite writing pieces from my youngest son’s preschool days was a “song” he wrote. It had preschool words, and music notes, and was written on yellow construction paper, and, when asked to sing it, he sang it the same way each time. He still likes to write songs and raps, and perform them.

Music as a writing form
Writing music, poetry and song lyrics provides a different way for students to practice powerful word choice. (c) Kim M. Bennett, 2012.

Writing forms like poetry and songs, teach important writing ideas:

  • Powerful word choice: since the author can only use a few words to convey a big idea;
  • Visualization and elaborative detail;
  • How to create a mood using the words or formation of the text;
  • The connection between art, music and words when conveying a message.

For many kids, analyzing song lyrics works when poetry study does not, because the text is relevant and familiar to them. In my high school behavioral health class, we regularly have “music group” for our life skills part of the day. Students choose a song based on an assignment (“a song that makes you think of happy times” ~ “a song for sad days”), and then explain why they chose it to the rest of the class.

6. A Narrative…

I will be the first to admit to any child, that writing fictional stories is NOT my strong suit. I am great at personal narratives, and love to spin a yarn (usually at the expense of my family), however.

Whether fictional or based on real-life events, it is important for kids to learn how to tell a story. Story-telling is an ancient art form, and serves many social and literary needs, and teaches many things:

  • How to build a plot where the action rises and falls;
  • The importance of setting, character development and elaborative detail (even in true accounts);
  • How to set a tone (humor, drama, reflection)
Fictional narratives
Whether fictional or personal, narratives teach students how to weave a good story. (c) Kim M. Bennett, 2012.

When my eldest son moved into a new apartment a couple of years ago, he found a box with things from his little boy days, including a family favorite, My Vacation Journal, written when he was five. It had “chapters” such as “Uncle Andy with Vacation Hair,” “The Vicious Frog Day,” and “One Day When I Was Fly-Fishing.” It was written in all caps, and had more exclamation points than anyone needs in one writing piece. We sat in my backyard, and loved it all over again.

7. An Argument…

So here’s a type of writing that has important life implications, whether you’re trying to convince your dad to buy you a new bike, applying for a summer job, asking a date to the prom, or completing a college application.

Here are things this type of writing teaches:

  • How to clearly state your position
  • How to back up your position with real evidence (not your opinions)
  • How to evaluate and then choose the best evidence to support your position
  • How to anticipate alternative views and prepare for them in your argument

Not that we wish to abdicate all parental decision-making, but it’s really hard to resist a well-crafted argument when your kids and students bring it to you!

8. An Informational Article…

I mean, more than that old chestnut, the animal report. If you look over your mail table or coffee table, you probably see more informational text than fictional pieces. A lot of the “heavy lifting” of the informational text genre comes before the actual writing:

  • Engaging Topic – What would I like to write about? What would people like to read about? What are people already writing about?
  • Inquiry – What would I like to/need to know about this topic? What is already written?
  • Research – What is good source material? How do I evaluate sources?
  • Format and Structure – How does the format of my piece also teach?
Writing about our African-American heritage
Writing informational pieces teaches students important research skills. (c) Kim M. Bennett, 2012.

My first full year of homeschooling my youngest son, he wanted to learn about military helicopters. We spent countless hours on You Tube, watching videos of different classes of helicopters, reading about the history of the helicopter industry right here at Sikorsky, in our home state of Connecticut, and learning about the different branches of the US military. He learned things through his research that he still treasures, today.

Recently, when we were packing for a move, he found prints of Navy helicopters that were given to him by a colleague of mine whose family is full of Navy flyers. His helicopter research sticks with him, even almost 10 years later.

9. A Photo Caption…

Last night, my youngest and I were working on a blog article I was writing on interactive bulletin boards as a center (he was providing over-the-shoulder commentary and feedback on my work), and we began talking about what to put in a caption of a photograph. A writer needs to cover a lot of territory in two sentences and an image:

  • Summarization
  • Creating “stand-alone” visuals
  • Proper use of the “snipping tool” and other photo-capture tools
  • Proper citation for images and photos
  • Non-fiction text features
  • Choice and placement of graphics, including their captions
  • Attributions and copyright laws

My son uses screen captures and the “snipping tool” all the time, but never realized that you can’t simply place someone else’s photo in your PowerPoint without properly acknowledging its creator.

Apple Experiments
Young children often like to add signs to their work — another form of caption. (c) Kim M. Bennett, 2012.

10. The Directions for Doing Something

My middle son is a lifelong LEGO-Maniac. Even as an adult, he used the excuse of having a little brother who is 14 years his junior as an opportunity to drag out his collection of LEGOs and build. All those years of following directions had a direct effect on his comprehension of procedures, however, and he has the ability to carefully explain directions to his crew at work, as a result.

Last year, one of the teens in my class was struggling to care for his hair. After a couple of the other boys razzed him for a particularly tousled day, I suggested to one of them that, instead of teasing him, why don’t they TEACH him? This teen, who, himself, has great difficulty spelling, spent time at the end of the day writing up detailed hair-care directions for the first boy. I was proud of him.

Steps to a building a lego creation
Following and writing written procedures can be practiced using construction materials, such as Legos. (c) Kim M. Bennett, 2011.

Writing step-by-step directions is a text form not seen much in most social studies and English courses, but an integral part of mathematics and the scientific method. Writing a procedure helps students:

  • Break a complex task down into important sub-tasks;
  • Think logically and hierarchically;
  • Anticipate reader confusion and address it ahead of time;
  • Learn how to efficiently incorporate diagrams or illustrations to clarify

Unlike the narrative, which tickles the right side of the brain, lists and procedures are a natural for left-brained thinkers.

Conclusion

Whether journalers, notebookers, traditional note-takers or “each class in its own pocket” teachers, the 10 Writing Pieces outlined above can be incorporated into any writing curriculum. Looking over my list of 10, I’m wondering what would happen to our writers if we focused on each one of these for an entire month. By the end of the 10 month school year, what kind of writers would we have?

I think we’d have good ones.

Posted in faith, general education, homeschool, more seeds, parents, social-emotional, special education, spirit

Living a Life of Gratitude

Ungratefulness: The Price of a Hectic Life

The world we live in can be a real doozie…

Right now, my desk is littered with planning materials for summer school and the fall, a pile of mail to sort (most of it junk), bills to pay, to-do lists, my partially completed journal for the day, a coffee cup that wants more coffee, and several cans with markers and colored pencils for my Bible journaling that never seems to get done…

It is easy to become overwhelmed with the busy-ness of life. Sometimes, the brain can be so full of things to do, worries and anxieties, appointments, and past conversations that there is no quiet, not even on the inside. The availability of information on a myriad of electronic devices only makes this worse.

Our kids feel the same pressure. And, in a paradox that hurts the hearts of people in my generation, they eschew the very things that ease the heart of a small child: sunshine, unstructured play, face-to-face time with friends, family outings.

It is not surprising that, in all that busy-ness, people of all ages become bitter and negative about things. We miss the good things that we have, because we are so focused on what we need to do and what we don’t have.

Building Gratitude

Fortunately, it is never too late to teach ourselves and our kids how to be grateful. Building gratitude starts with small steps, just like learning to read. These small steps cause us to pause in a hectic life, and consider the goodness that we already have. By simply changing the way we think about events, we can learn to be content in all things, as the Apostle Paul taught us.

Ten Ways to Practice Gratitude

Learning to be grateful is a process. Here are ten simple things anyone can do to begin a lifetime practice of gratitude.

  1. Say “thank you,” and say it often. Saying “thank you” isn’t just good manners. It lets the other person know that you appreciate him and what he’s done for you. My husband and children always says thank you to me after a meal, and we always say thank you to my husband when he cooks – we give thanks to God, and then honor the cook! Thank the postal carrier, thank the cashier at Stop and Shop… just say, “Thank you!”
  2. Recognize “stinking thinking” – and eliminate it. I once worked with an excellent teacher at a correctional facility.She had a poster in the front of the room entitled, “Accountable Speech.” On one side, she wrote negative self-statements her students made: “I’m so stupid” – “We’ll never get jobs” – “I can’t do that” – “That’s just how it is.” Next to each statement, she re-wrote it with a positive mindset: “I don’t understand that – can you explain it to me?” – “I need help finding a good job” – “I can’t do that YET” – “That’s how it was – but things can change.” Re-think the words you speak over yourself. Build yourself up with your own words.
  3. Share 3 good things that happen to you each day. When my kids were little, it was like pulling teeth to find out how their days were. So, during our afterschool snack, I asked them to tell me three good things and one not-so-good thing. This helped them focus on the good (even if it was “Jacob’s mom brought in cupcakes for his birthday”) and still honors thThee bumps in the road – in a balanced way. Try it with your kids.
  4. Make a “100 list.” I had a class once that included quite a few teens with depression and anxiety. I started this task when one of them was going through a rough patch. They grew to like it so much that they asked to be able to do it on days that weren’t going so well for the class – instead of the scheduled task. Simply start a list of things that you are thankful for. The idea is that the first 25 are rather concrete and often materialistic (new jewelry, a vacation, payday…). As you get to 75 and above, however, you get to the real things to be thankful for: still being alive, being clean and sober, being reunited with family…
  5. Start a gratitude journal. It can be devoting one day a week (maybe Sunday) to a gratitude entry in the journal or planner you already use. Or you can challenge yourself, for 30 days, to write down one thing you’re grateful for, each day. Just write it down!
  6. Complete a Gratitude Challenge. There are so many 30-day challenges online these days. Pick one and dedicate yourself to it for a month. If you’re really dedicated and committed, try working through Simple Abundance: A Daybook of Comfort and Joy for an entire year.
  7. Think of the upside of things. My pastor used to say, “Don’t complain about the light bill. Thank God you have electricity. Some don’t.” For almost any trouble you have, you can take the “glass half full” viewpoint. When you catch yourself (or your kids) looking at a half-empty glass, rephrase the statement.
  8. Give up something you love for a week. A friend of mine used to have her kids each pick out 2-3 toys to keep in their rooms. The rest would be lovingly packed and put in the attic. Every month or so, they’d “shop” in the attic, swapping out their toys for ones they stored. They grew to better appreciate the ones they kept in their rooms, as well as the ones in storage. Try doing without something for a time – you’ll be more grateful for it when you return to it!
  9. Start and end your day with gratitude. My journal has space for me to write down 3 things that I am grateful for upon awaking, and 3 things I am grateful for before retiring for the evening. I made a word cloud of June’s entries – the bigger the word, the more times I mentioned it. This was a good reminder for me about what really matters.
  10. Read one prayer of thanksgiving from the Bible, each day. King David wrote many songs of thanksgiving in the book of Psalms. If you’re not sure what a prayer of thanksgiving is, All About Prayer has a good article to read.
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gratitude word cloud
My June gratitude word cloud… The bigger the word, the more times I mentioned it in the month.

Find Peace in Gratitude

As a parting thought, I want to share with you a gospel song that gets me in the tear ducts and heart every time I sing it. Blessings to you, and God bless your journey toward a life of gratitude.

Posted in general education, literacy, mind, special education

A Simple Scoring Rubric for Writing

Teaching and Assessing Writing

In my teaching career, I’ve taught preschool through adult education. Writing, of course, happens in every age group.

I also have certifications, and have taken educational coursework, that taught me how to “teach” writing at all those ages. And what I’ve learned contradicts itself!

When kids are in preschool, we work on letter formation and sounds, drawing colorful pictures to tell a story, and getting kids to use symbols to represent ideas and sounds. We are excited when they “write” stories, and encourage them to use symbols of any type to communicate.

When kids enter the elementary grades, we give them writing prompts. We teach them how to elaborate, how to develop a narrative, how to provide important details. We tell them that “spelling, punctuation and capitalization don’t count.” We continue focusing on the content of the writing and the development of “story” through the middle grades.

Then kids hit high school. And we ding kids for not spelling correctly, using punctuation appropriately, and capitalizing proper nouns.

And think about the last time you received something written by an adult, and you discovered a “there/their/they’re” error. Just one. What did you think of that adult? I recall receiving an invoice for having my pipes thawed from a big name plumbing company, and the plumber had written the service as “thrall pipes.” His plumbing work might have been excellent, but what impression do you think I got about that plumber, and the company?

Writing is a complex process for students… and challenging for teachers to score. {Image Credit (c) 2013 Kim M. Bennett}

We’ve Been Scoring Writing All Wrong…

Too often, while kids are younger, we tell them that the mechanics of writing don’t count. We do this from a well-meaning place, for we don’t want them to interrupt the flow of ideas because they are worried about spelling. Their short response work, if it is graded at all, is based on a 0-1-2 score (not answered / partially answered / fully answered). And writing prompts are usually a 12-point assessment of the development of the essay or narrative. Yet, we give the kids spelling tests where the kids must spell the words correctly in isolation, then tell them, where it REALLY counts  – in their writing – that, well… it doesn’t.

We continue to ask teens and young adults to respond in writing, and focus on the development of the answer. But, by the time they are grown, and they continue to show errors in spelling, grammar or other conventions, we look at them and say, “She’s a terrible speller,” and then don’t teach spelling any more.

Think about the student you have who struggles with any of these conventions of writing. We tell him spelling doesn’t count, but he doesn’t know how to get past that. Let me tell you, by the time that this student is in 10th grade, he will be paralyzed by not being able to spell, and will refuse to write a word without a teacher telling him how to spell everything. And, at this point, when the student is filling out job applications and writing letters to universities, these things, sadly, DO count.

Additionally, telling students not to worry about writing conventions also assumes that a student’s main obstacle to successful writing is developing the actual “guts” of the writing piece – not simply starting the writing process. The students in that “zero” pile (ones who have little or no written response on their papers) are left at the starting line when we ignore the above causes for poor writing performance. And most writing lessons focus on the development of writing, not the actual event of putting your pen to paper and beginning it.

The development of the written piece, writing mechanics, question analysis and writing strategies are often taught, and evaluated, separately. {Image credit (c) 2011 Kim M. Bennett}

The Four C’s: Creating a Balanced Scoring Rubric for Writing

A colleague of mine once let me borrow a stamp that she had used to grade summaries. It used a simple 10-pt scored that broke the written summary into four discrete areas that covered all the bases in writing. I liked it so much, that I developed a simple, balanced scoring rubric for teaching students what well-written response work was. It also allowed me to identify a specific writing focus so that we could take baby steps toward becoming confident writers.

ComponentMax PointsDescription What it Assesses
Complete3All parts of the question or prompt are addressedAbility to analyze a question or prompt and comprehend it, in order to form a response
Correct3The question or prompt is answered correctlyMastery of curricular content
Content2The focus skill or strategy is demonstratedMastery of the taught learning strategy or skill
Conventions2The response demonstrates the targeted writing mechanics focusMastery of the taught writing mechanics skill

I have found this scoring system so helpful with writers of all ages and abilities, because it takes the very complex writing process and helps the students (and me!) focus on the specific set of skills and strategies that I have been teaching them for that instructional segment. It also keeps me focused when I’m grading (grading writing can be hard!).

This rubric is also helpful when I’m monitoring IEP goals and objectives, too, as I can customize a student’s rubric to his or her writing goals.

The proper writing rubric can quickly score any type of written response work, in any content area. {Image Credit (c) 2013, Kim M. Bennett}

The Four Cs Rubric in Action: Earth Science

Let’s demonstrate the use of this rubric to evaluate student response work in a high school Earth Science class. Examples are given based on the question type.

Text-Dependent Question, Type I: “Right There” Questions

“Which ancient civilization’s calendar gave rise to our modern calendar?”

  • Is the response complete? This question has only one part to it. The answer should be the right TYPE.
    • 0 pts: no answer
    • 3 pts: answer given that is on-topic (NOTE: the answer might be incorrect – the answer is the Ancient Romans; students would get credit for misidentifying the culture [Ancient Greeks] but not for “IDK” or “yes”)
  • Is the response correct? This question is fact-based.
    • 0 pts: correct answer not given
    • 1 pt: student says “Gregorians” or “Julians” – not ancient cultures
    • 2 : student says “Pope Gregory” or “Julius Caesar” – individuals but not their cultures
    • 3 pts: correct answer (“Ancient Romans”) given
  • Is the skill or strategy content (let’s say, “Turn the Question Around”) demonstrated adequately?
    • 0 pts: Not attempted.
    • 1 pts: Attempted, not fully demonstrated.
    • 2 pts. Fully demonstrated.
  • Is mastery of writing conventions (e.g., spelling words correctly that are in the question) demonstrated?
    • 0 pts: 5 or more errors
    • 1 pt: 2-4 errors
    • 2 pts: 0-1 error

This is just an example. You will adjust the rubric to reflect your own students and teaching. Below are examples with questions of other question types (NOTE: the scoring for Content and Conventions will remain the same as the above example).

Text-Dependent Question, Type II: “Read and Find Out” Questions

“What advantage did Galileo have over the astronomers that went before him, and how did it help him?”

  • Is the response complete? This question has two parts to it: mentioning use of telescopes, and what it showed Galileo about celestial objects
    • 0 pts: no parts answered
    • 1.5 pts: one part answered
    • 3 pts: both parts answered
  • Is the response correct? This question is fact-based, but requires more extended reading, and a comparison.
    • 0 pts: no part answered correctly
    • 1 pt: one part answered correctly
    • 2 pts: both parts answered correctly
    • 3 pts: both parts answered correctly, with explicit comparison made

Text-Dependent Question, Type III: “Author and Me” Questions

“ANALYZING RELATIONSHIPS. Is Copernicus’s theory completely correct? Why or why not? How does his theory relate to what we know today about the sun’s position in our Solar System and in the Universe?”

  • Is the response complete? This question has four parts to it.
    • 0 pts: no parts answered
    • 1 pts: one part answered
    • 2 pts: two parts answered
    • 3 pts: 3-4 parts answered
  • Is the response correct? This question, as stated in the text, is an analysis of the overall ideas presented in the section. It requires the student to pull in his or her background knowledge about the Solar System and the Universe. It is easier to score the parts then total the points.
    • Part 1: “Is Copernicus’s theory completely correct?”  – The answer is no. (1 pt)
    • Part 2: “Why or why not?” – Although a helocentrist, Copernicus thought the Sun was the center of the whole Universe, not the Solar System (1 pt)
    • Part3 & 4: “How does his theory relate to what we know today about the Sun’s position in our Solar System and in the Universe?” – 1) Modern telescopes, computer modeling, and photography have confirmed the Sun’s position at the center of the Solar System ~ 2) We also know that each star represents another Solar System, with movements that confirm Copernicus’s theory ~ 3) The same technology also has shown that there are many solar systems in many galaxies, and that our Sun is near the edge of an expanding Universe. (0.5 pts each for reference to technology, the position of the Sun in the center of the Solar System, and the size and nature of the Universe – potential for 0.5 bonus points).
The same rubric can be used to score writing across all content areas. {Image Credit (c) 2012, Kim M. Bennett}

Hints for Scoring Written Responses

As a teacher, I found it helpful to take the assessment along with my students – I recommend you do this, as well. It will allow you to catch mistakes or typos (it always happens), and you can write out the answer YOU expected to see, making it easier to score when you correct your students’ work.

Don’t use this rubric to score everything the students write. Choose one assignment a week as a writing assessment. Use the results to guide your writing instruction, but not necessarily as a grade.

Download a Free Copy of the Scoring Rubric

Try this rubric out with your students. Download the directions for the rubric, and a blank copy of the rubric. You can write in your own focus areas in the proper columns, and change them as you need to.

Please feel free to comment, below, if you’d like tips on identifying a focus for your writing, or on how to score a written response. I’d love to help!

The 4 C’s Scoring Rubric for Writing – Directions

The 4 C’s Scoring Rubric for Writing – Template (pdf)

Posted in general education, homeschool, mind, more seeds, special education

Top 30 Trends in Education

What’s Hot in Education?

If you’ve been in education for long enough, you know that there are certain topics that everyone seems to be discussing. TeachThought put together a list of the top 30 trending topics in education last summer. They based their ranking on five metrics: 1) top results from popular search engine data; 2) TeachThought’s own search data; 3) traffic and search data from popular education websites; 4) social media data; 5) TeachThought’s editorial board’s impressions as experts in the field.

The Hottest Topics in Education Today, Explained

Below are concise definitions of the top 30 educational trends today, with links to experts on each topic. Which ones are hot topics in your district? Which ones pique your interest?

Growth Mindset : “In a fixed mindset, individuals believe their basic abilities, and talents are fixed traits. They have a certain amount and that’s that, and then their goal becomes to look smart all the time and never look dumb. In a growth mindset, individuals understand that their talents and abilities can be developed through effort, good teaching and persistence. They don’t necessarily think everyone’s the same or anyone can be Einstein, but they believe everyone can get smarter if they work at it.” ~ Carol Dweck, Mindset

Maker Learning: ” Maker education is a type of project-based learning that relies on hands-on learning experiences. Within maker education, projects often focus on solving real problems students face and involve taking a project from concept to reality in order to demonstrate learning.” ~ Sparkfun Education

Bloom’s Taxonomy: ” Bloom’s taxonomy is a classification system used to define and distinguish different levels of human cognition—i.e., thinking, learning, and understanding. Educators have typically used Bloom’s taxonomy to inform or guide the development of assessments(tests and other evaluations of student learning), curriculum (units, lessons, projects, and other learning activities), and instructional methods such as questioning strategies.” ~ The Glossary of Education Reform

Digital Citizenship / Learning: ” Digital Citizenship is a concept which helps teachers, technology leaders and parents to understand what students/children/technology users should know to use technology appropriately… Digital citizenship is the continuously developing norms of appropriate, responsible, and empowered technology use.” ~ Digital Citizenship

Personalized Learning: “Personalized learning is an educational approach that aims to customize learning for each student’s strengths, needs, skills and interests. Each student gets a learning plan that’s based on what he knows and how he learns best. ” ~ Understood

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Current education trends focus on multiple ways for students to engage, interact and express their learning. {Image credit: (c) 2014, Kim M. Bennett

Project-Based Learning: ” Project Based Learning is a teaching method in which students gain knowledge and skills by working for an extended period of time to investigate and respond to an authentic, engaging, and complex question, problem, or challenge.” ~ PBL Works

Team-Building for Learning: Team building is a process that develops cooperation and teamwork within a work unit. To constitute an effective team, its members must share a common goal, have respect for each other, and be motivated to use the strengths of each member to achieve their objectives. ” ~ WiseGeek

Blended Learning: “Blended learning is a term used to describe the way e-learning is being combined with traditional classroom methods and independent study to create a new, hybrid teaching methodology.” ~ MindFlash

Genius Hour: “Genius hour is a movement that allows students to explore their own passions and encourages creativity in the classroom. It provides students a choice in what they learn during a set period of time during school. ” ~ Kesler Science

Teaching Empathy: “Empathy is the ability to share and understand other peoples feelings. By teaching empathy in the classroom students learn to understand one another and build friendships based on trust. Teaching empathy could be one of the answers to decreasing bullying.” ~ The Chalkboard

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21st Century Skills include social-emotional learning, such as practicing empathy and charity. {Image credit: (c) 2007, born1945 via Creative Commons}

Pushing Back on Education Technology: “Technology has great benefits for schools. However, any conversation that does not include the potential dangers of the widespread use of technology would not be complete. Here, experts share the dark side of technology when it comes to its use in schools.” ~ The Edvocate

Social/Emotional Learning: “Social-emotional learning is the process of developing students’ knowledge, attitudes and skills to manage emotions, build healthy relationships, set goals and make decisions. Social-emotional skills are essential for working with others, building resiliency, achieving goals and reducing bullying and risk behaviors (e.g., substance use).” ~ Government of Alberta

Alternatives to Traditional “School”: “Most parents consider only brick-and-mortar facilities for their children’s education. Here are five alternative education styles for the parent who is ready, and willing, to put in time and effort (and sometimes money) to make a change.” ~ Mom.me

Robotics/Coding: Robotics is the study of robots. Coding is what makes it possible for us to create robots, as well as computer software, apps and websites. A web browser, your computer’s operating system, the apps on your phone, your Twitter feed… all depend on computer coding and machines. ~ Code Conquest

Alternatives to Letter Grades: “The letter grade fails because its job–to communicate learning results to learners and families—cannot possibly be performed a single symbol.” Here are alternatives to letter grades for evaluating student work. ~ Teachers With Apps

Alternative forms of assessing and grading, as well as different formats for delivering instruction, offer different ways to teach and and evaluate. {Image credit: (c) 2010, Kim M. Bennett}

Brain-based Learning: “Related terms such as brain-based education or brain-based teaching, like brainbased learning, refer to instructional techniques that are grounded in the neuroscience of learning—i.e., scientific findings are used to inform educational strategies and programs.”~ The Glossary of Educational Reform

Gamification: “Gamification is the process of taking something that already exists – a website, an enterprise application, an online community – and integrating game play into it to motivate participation, engagement and cooperation.” ~ BunchBall

Adaptive Learning Algorithm: “Adaptive learning, also known as adaptive teaching, is an educational method which uses computer algorithms to deliver customized resources and learning activities to address the unique needs of each learner.” ~ Growth Engineering

Game-based Learning: “Game-based learning (GBL) is a type of game play that has defined learning outcomes. Generally, game-based learning is designed to balance subject matter with game play and the ability of the player to retain, and apply the subject matter to the real world.” ~ GameLearn

Mobile Learning: “Mobile learning (m-learning) is education via the Internet or network using personal mobile devices, such as tablets and smartphones to obtain learning materials through mobile apps, social interactions and online educational hubs.” ~ Webopedia

Responsible use of technology, including students’ own, and game play as a learning technique, are current topics in education. {Image credit: (c) 2017, Kim M. Bennett}

Self-directed Learning: “Self directed learning is a way of creating a situation where learning is owned by the individual and aligned with organisational needs. Individuals take responsibility for decisions about their learning and work with others to achieve it.” ~ Brefi Group

Artificial Intelligence: “Artificial intelligence (AI) is an area of computer science that emphasizes the creation of intelligent machines that work and react like humans. Some of the activities computers with artificial intelligence are designed for include speech recognition, learning, planning and problem-solving.” ~ Techopedia

Micro-education: “Micro-learning is learning in smaller segments and goes hand in hand with traditional e Learning. Activities include short-term lessons, projects, or assignments with smaller amounts of information. ” ~ Digital Chalkboard

Modular Education: “Modular education partitions degrees into smaller, Lego-like building blocks of learning, each with their own credentials, learning and skills outcomes.” ~ Forbes Magazine

Sociocultural / Socioeconomic Equity: “Sociocultural and socioeconomic equity relates to diversity and equality based on race and other measures of social difference such as age, class, and disability status.” ~ Create Equity

Today’s climate makes discussion of concepts of fairness, equity and social justice important discussions in the classroom.

Flipped Classroom: “A flipped classroom consists of students completing direct instruction, such as viewing a lecture online, prior to the in-class discussion of the material. The intent is for students to see the material beforehand, also known as first-exposure learning, so they can learn the concepts at their own pace.” ~ Study.com

Scenario-based Learning: “Scenario Based Learning (SBL) is used extensively as a learner strategy in online learning. Not only does it provide high learner engagement as scenarios depict real life situations making them relatable, it also provides a safe environment to practice and understand consequences of their action.” ~ Adobe

BYOD/BYOT: BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) is a technology in which consumers bring their own software and hardward devices into an establishment for work or learning. Similarly, BYOT (Bring Your Own Technology) refers to the use of consumer devices and applications in work or school.) ~ TechTarget.

Social Media in the Classroom: “Social media provides venues for students to share their stories both within and beyond the classroom. It also grants opportunities for them to hear stories from beyond their school. Finally, being connected helps students recognize the power of personal voice.” ~ Education Week

Digital Portfolios: “Digital portfolios provide a compilation of an individual’s best work, including texts, photographs, illustrations, diagrams, web materials, audio files, spreadsheets and PowerPoint presentations, that capture a person’s versatility and learning.” ~ Classroom

Hands-on, real-world and project-based learning are alternative ways to prepare students for 21st Century life. {Image credit (c) 2014, Kim M. Bennett}

Current Topics in Your School

What are the most important topics in your district, right now? Drop a note in the comments section.

Posted in general education, homeschool, literacy, mind, more seeds, special education, Uncategorized

Ten Writing Strategies to Jump-Start the Reluctant Writer

The Problem of the Blank Page

I remember my first public school teaching position. We were required to administer writing prompts to our students on a quarterly basis (for the district), but were encouraged to repeat the process in between for evaluating student progress.

Every quarter, my colleagues and I would sit and collaboratively score our prompts. Every quarter, we had a pile of prompts that were scored as zeroes or ones out of 12, simply because the pages were blank, or nearly so.

Fast forward to my time as a consultant, where, once again, I was meeting with teachers (kindergarten, third grade, tenth grade – it didn’t matter) who were faced with the dilemma of what to do with a stack of writing papers that were blank. Sometimes the students were students with disabilities. Usually they were not. The teachers had lessons for teaching elaboration, or paragraph structure, or citing sources correctly. But what to do about the student who sat in front of a blank page for 45 minutes?

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blank page
For many students, the writing process gets stalled from the start when they face an empty page. {Image credit (c) Kim M. Bennett, 2016}

Common Causes for the “Empty Page Syndrome”

During data team meetings, we would look at that pile of low-scored prompts, and ask ourselves questions about why each student failed to gain more than two points on the prompt. {I will refer to this as the “Empty Page Syndrome,” because, like any other syndrome, it is a cluster of symptoms that has a singular, often difficult to see, reason behind it.} In order to do this, we had to think about each individual student, and look at the story behind the numbers. Assuming the prompt was read to all students (something teachers are allowed to do), the student is physically able to write, and critical vocabulary was explained (again, something that is allowed by the assessment), what are the common reasons for not scoring on a writing prompt?

  • No ideas on how to respond to the prompt;
  • Had ideas, but took to long thinking and/or planning and didn’t start on time;
  • Lacked stamina to write enough for a well-developed response;
  • Wrote sufficiently, but response was off-topic;
  • Refused to write because writing tasks are historically too complex for the student.

Almost all cases of writing “refusal” and empty responses can be attributed to one of these causes. By breaking down and addressing one of these specific obstacles, we can get students to begin the writing process and get out of the starting gate.

writing strategies
writing refusal
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Refusal to write can often be attributed to the student’s lack of confidence in his writing skills. {Image credit (c) Kim M. Bennett, 2017}

Ten Focused Writing Strategies to Use With Reluctant Writers

Here are the ten strategies I’ve used to help writers of all ages to begin the writing process, whether it’s in reading response work, answering social studies chapter questions, or completing a writing prompt. Each of these would be used INSTEAD of the actual written response work. NOTE: Remember ~ these strategies are to be used to help students get from NOTHING to SOMETHING; most of these are not suitable for refining the work of students who write sufficiently but miss the mark in some other way.

To score written tasks as you are working through these strategies, a response would be considered sufficient if the student used the strategy successfully. Once the strategy is mastered, you can add other components to the tasks. {NOTE: These also make good starting points for IEP goals and objectives for writing.}

writing strategies
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writing skills
When a student lacks certain writing skills, or is not confident in his abilities, the writing process often ends before it can really begin. {Image credit (c) Kim M. Bennett, 2018}

For the Student with No Ideas:

For students who aren’t sure what to write, the focus of these strategies is on understanding the prompt or question and having a plan for how to respond to it.

  1. Restate the question in your own words. Instead of answering the questions, the student will state, in his own words, what the question is asking him to do. This also allows you to see if the student understands the task, at all. {This works GREAT in math class, too}.
  2. Write 3 ideas that you can use in the answer. This allows the student to share a small number her ideas without feeling overwhelmed by the whole writing process. The ideas can later be turned into a response, if you wish.

For the Student Who Needs Writing Stamina:

For most of my current students, I just want to get them to write more than a sentence or two. In order to build endurance, I use a variety of strategies that focus on the simply putting pen to paper for a specific amount of space or time. The content, right now, is not important. I even told one student, “Just write ‘I don’t know what to write” over and over until the bell goes off.” He did.

  1. Write X lines. Sometimes, students have a hard time knowing when a written response is completed. By giving the student a target number of lines to fill (which can change as students build endurance), they can easily see when they are “done.”
  2. Fill the time. I often start with 5 minutes, then move up in 5 minute increments to 15 minutes, then upward in 15 minute increments to 45, with the goal that students should be able to write for a full class period, including planning, writing, revision and editing. This is an easy strategy to use with daily journaling.
  3. Fill the space. Some students don’t understand that you can’t write a high-quality response with too few words. In this strategy, students must write enough to fill in all the space provided. This strategy can be used with all ages, and for all subject areas.

For the Student Who Has Trouble With Time Management:

For students who need to use MORE time to write, you can use the “Fill the Time” strategy (described above). For students who get lost in their thinking, I would use the next strategy.

  1. Start within 5 minutes. I set a time for 5 minutes, then make a check mark next to any student who is actively writing anything. Students sitting and still looking at their paper would not get a check.

For the Student Who Writes Off Topic:

I once knew a second grader with autism, who only wanted to write about robots. Sometimes, he’d start writing about the prompt, but he’d always end up writing a robot story. If he was told that the prompt was about something else, he would refuse to write.

  1. List X words or ideas that are related to the prompt. To help students focus better on the topic, a good starting place would be just to list words, phrases and ideas that are related, no matter how obtusely. Simply drawing their attention to the topic initially, often keeps them on the right track in their response.
  2. Cross out X ideas that don’t relate to the prompt. I have a teen student now whose writing is a full page of scattered words, phrases and doodles. On the same page will be names of rap artists, swear words, love notes to his mom, random words copied from the board, and, usually, some content that answers the question. He has an IEP goal of taking this writing and crossing out ten things that don’t match the prompt. This is easier for him than stopping the flow of random ideas.
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word banks
Word banks and other strategies can make writing tasks simpler for reluctant writers. {Image credit (c) Kim M. Bennett, 2015}

For the Student Who Needs a Simpler Task:

Sometimes, the student’s skills in writing (or lack of skills) make the whole process uncomfortable for them, so they avoid or refuse it. For these students, consider a strategy that is focused on what their learning obstacles are:

  1. Use a word/idea bank . Providing a word bank with key words or ideas helps students who aren’t sure if they understand the prompt, have difficulties with recall, struggle with spelling, or just need a place to start. You can even teach students how to create their own word/idea bank from the prompt, itself, as a next step.
  2. Write X sentences. Sometimes, organizing a whole essay is too much for a student. In this case, reducing the prompt to a certain number of sentences makes the goal more attainable. You can also use the “Write X Lines” strategy, if sentence construction is challenging.

Looking for Writing Resources?

If you are looking for notebook resources that you can use with your struggling writers, check out my Teachers Pay Teachers materials.

https://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Store/Kim-Bennett-6153
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Please visit my Teachers Pay Teachers store for writing resources for all ages.

Posted in homeschool, more seeds, outdoor education, parents, spirit

Getting Outside with Children

The Benefits of Outdoor Time

It seems like I never quite get my garden in when other folks do. By the time the school year wraps up, it’s almost the 4th of July. I recently spent a rainy day planning a small kitchen garden that I’m going to install this weekend…

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outdoor education
A small garden can afford time to refresh oneself outside… and provides learning opportunities for children, too. {Image credit: (c) Kim M. Bennett, 2019}

When I get outside, even to sweep the sidewalk, pull a few weeds, or just sit and drink my coffee on the patio, I feel peaceful. My mind and heart empty of all the stresses of the day, and I can hear God talking.

Nature Study and Outdoor Learning

The outdoors is an excellent classroom, not only for “summer school,” but for any time of year. Don’t worry about structuring the time – 15 minutes a day, with an opportunity to talk, write or draw about the time, is all that is needed to spark creativity and connect a child to the world. Of course, once they’re hooked, they will want to be outside for hours (see this post about Charlotte Mason’s view on children and the outdoors).

See my Nature Study and Outdoor Classrooms board for some ideas on how to use your outdoor space as a peaceful learning place.

Summer Outdoor Learning

Whether you’re homeschooling all year, looking for enrichment for kiddos home from a brick-and-mortar school, or just wanting some fun things to do with your children during the summer, check out some of our favorite summer nature activities:

  1. The Mathematics of Nature: Fractals
  2. Beaches, Beaches, Everywhere!
  3. Summer Bird Study: Blue Jays
  4. Nature Study Notebooks and Literacy
  5. A Little Fun with our Feathered Friends
  6. The Nightshade Family (and a Little Surprise)

What are you doing with your kids this summer? Let me know in the comments section! Share a link…


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nature study

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